Aquatic Health Benefits Bulletin

NSPF provides a monthly Aquatic Health Benefits Bulletin (AHBB), each focusing on a different topic area: athletes and non-impaired, cardiopulmonary & systemic, neurological & cognitive musculoskeletal, pediatric, and women's health. The monthly posts include 300-500 vignettes written in laymen's terms and the corresponding scientific references. The bibliography is organized by a certain topic area with links to publications that are available online. The AHBB is a great resource for the pool and spa industry influencers who want to help build demand for pools, spas, and aquatic facilities by promoting the benefits of water immersion and activity. It is also a perfect way for aquatic leaders to help promote healthier living and reduce drownings.

 

October 2018: Aquatics & Diabetes

SPOTLIGHT ON AQUATICS & DIABETES

THE POOL IS CUSTOM-MADE FOR TREATING DIABETIC CONDITIONS

ID 126290752 © Róbert László Róka | Dreamstime.comContent courtesy of the National Swimming Pool Foundation

RECENT PUBLICATIONS WHICH SHOW HOW WATER WORKS FOR DIABETES

The roll of structured exercise in the life of the patient with diabetes cannot be overstated. Time and again, research has shown the ability for an ongoing exercise program to improve cardiopulmonary factors, quality of life and diabetic markers for patients with chronic conditions like diabetes. But this begs the question: Is it more effective to workout in the pool or on land? The answer is, it depends. Patients with significant mobility limitations due to obesity or severe deconditioning will find the pool a welcoming environment. It is easier to perform activities like running and jumping when supported by the buoyancy inherent in water.

But the water can also make things too easy. Patients who spend a lot of time hanging in the deep water, making use of buoyant devices such as noodles or belts, may not be elevating the heart rate, oxygen consumption or other signals of “effort” to nearly high enough rates to burn calories. Patients who are immersed in the water to chest deep have a powerful force aiding their heart in pushing blood – hydrostatic pressure. So, while immersion will increase the work of breathing by up to 60%, it will make it harder to reach target heart rates for training. A helpful tool for patients who want to get a good workout in water is to do a simple “talk test” where they try to carry on a conversation. If the patient needs to breath every word or two, he or she is working too hard, creating an oxygen debt which will not allow aerobic activity to occur. If it is possible for the patient to belt out a phrase of music or complete a sentence without needing a breath, it is definitely time to up the amp on the workout parameters! 

RECENT ANNOTATED REFERENCES

Conners, R. et al. (2018). Maintenance of Changes in Glycemic Control and Blood Lipids following 12 Weeks of Underwater Treadmill Training in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes, 67(Supplement 1), 741–P. http://doi.org/10.2337/db18-741-P

Conners, R. T., Caputo, J. L., Coons, J. M., Fuller, D. K., & Morgan, D. W. (2018). Impact of Underwater Treadmill Training on Glycemic Control, Blood Lipids, and Health-Related Fitness in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. Clinical Diabetes, Epub ahead of print. http://doi.org/10.2337/cd17-0066

Conners, R. T., Coons, J. M., Fuller, D. K., Kim, Y., & Morgan, D. W. (2018). Maintenance of Health-Related Fitness Gains Following Underwater Treadmill Training in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 50, 231. http://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000535846.43285.7c

Conners, R. T., Morgan, D. D. W., Fuller, D. K. D., & Caputo, J. L. J. (2014). Underwater Treadmill Training, Glycemic Control, and Health-Related Fitness in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. IJARE, 8(4), 382–396. Retrieved from http://journals.humankinetics.com/ijare-current-issue/ijare-volume-8-issue-4-november/underwater-treadmill-training-glycemic-control-and-health-related-fitness-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes

Cordero, Y., Mottola, M. F., Vargas, J., Blanco, M., & Barakat, R. (2015). Exercise is associated with a reduction in gestational diabetes mellitus. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(7), 1328–1333. Retrieved from http://oa.upm.es/41183/1/INVE_MEM_2015_227386.pdf

Cugusi, L., Cadeddu, C., Nocco, S., Orrù, F., Bandino, S., Deidda, M., … Mercuro, G. (2015). Effects of an aquatic-based exercise program to improve cardiometabolic profile, quality of life, and physical activity levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PM & R : The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 7(2), 141–8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2014.09.004

da Silva, J. R. J. R. J., Borges, P. S. S., Agra, K. F., Pontes, I. A., Alves, J. G. B., J.R., da S. J., … Alves, J. G. B. (2013). Effects of an aquatic physical exercise program on glycemic control and perinatal outcomes of gestational diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 14(1), 390. http://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-14-390

Delevatti, R. S., Kanitz, A. C., Alberton, C. L., Marson, E. C., Lisboa, S. C., Pinho, C. D. F., … Kruel, L. F. M. (2015). Glucose control can be similarly improved after aquatic or dry-land aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 19(8), 688–93. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.10.008

Delevatti, R. S., Alberton, C. L., Kanitz, A. C., Marson, E. C., & Kruel, L. F. M. (2015). Vertical ground reaction force during land-and water-based exercise performed by patients with type 2 diabetes. Medicina Sportiva: Journal of Romanian Sports Medicine Society, XI(1), 2501–2508. Retrieved from http://www.medicinasportiva.ro/SRoMS/RMS/41/vertical-ground-reaction-force-water-based-exercise-diabetes.pdf

Delevatti, R. S., Pinho, C. D. F., Kanitz, A. C., Alberton, C. L., Marson, E. C., Bregagnol, L. P., … Kruel, L. F. M. (2016). Glycemic reductions following water- and land-based exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 24, 73–77. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2016.05.008

Delevatti, R., Schuch, F., & Kanitz, A. C., Alberton, C. L., Marson, E. C., Lisboa, S. C., & Kruel, L. F. M. (2018). Quality of life and sleep quality are similarly improved after aquatic or dry-land aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(5), 483–488. Retrieved from http://www.jsams.org/article/S1440-2440(17)31029-0/abstract

Fialová E, K. O. (2015). The development of selected cardiovascular parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus during a spa treatment. Physiological Research, 64(5), 661–7.

Foreman, J., Castleberry, T., Rigby, B. R., & Biggerstaff, K. D. (2016). Cardiorespiratory Responses During Aquatic Treadmill Exercise and Land Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Diabetes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(5), 205. http://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000485615.73013.45

Herman, P. M., Craig, B. M., & Caspi, O. (2005). Is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) cost-effective? a systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5(11), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1186/1472-Received

Johnson, S. T., Mundt, C., Boule, N., Bell, G., Vallance, J., Taylor, L., & Johnson, J. A. (2014). Improved functional status following the aquatic physical exercise for arthritis and diabetes (APEXD) study. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 38, S63. Retrieved from https://www.canadianjournalofdiabetes.com/article/S1499-2671(14)00466-3/abstract

Johnson, S. et al. (2018). Changes in Functional Status After Aquatic Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes and Arthritis: A Pilot Study. Activities, Adaptations & Aging. http://doi.org/doi:10.1080/01924788.2018.1493890

Qi, Z., Pang, Y., Lin, L., Zhang, B., Shao, J., Liu, X., & Zhang, X. (2018). Acupuncture Combined with Hydrotherapy in Diabetes Patients with Mild Lower-Extremity Arterial Disease: A Prospective, Randomized, Nonblinded Clinical Study. Medical Science Monitor, 24, 2887–2900. http://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.909733

Rees, J. L., Johnson, S. T., & Boulé, N. G. (2017). Aquatic exercise for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Acta Diabetologica, 1–10. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-017-1023-9

Suntraluck, S., Tanaka, H., & Suksom, D. (2017). The Relative Efficacy of Land-Based and Water-Based Exercise Training on Macro-and Micro-Vascular Functions in Older Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, Epub ahead of print. http://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2016-0193

Suntraluck, S., Tanaka, H., & Suksom, D. (2016). Acute Effects of Land- and Water-Based Exercise on Cutaneous Microvascular Function in Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(5 Suppl 1), 126. http://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000485376.10682.4e