Aquatic Health Benefits Bulletin

NSPF provides a monthly Aquatic Health Benefits Bulletin (AHBB), each focusing on a different topic area: athletes and non-impaired, cardiopulmonary & systemic, neurological & cognitive musculoskeletal, pediatric, and women's health. The monthly posts include 300-500 vignettes written in laymen's terms and the corresponding scientific references. The bibliography is organized by a certain topic area with links to publications that are available online. The AHBB is a great resource for the pool and spa industry influencers who want to help build demand for pools, spas, and aquatic facilities by promoting the benefits of water immersion and activity. It is also a perfect way for aquatic leaders to help promote healthier living and reduce drownings.

 

April 2019: Aquatics & Autism Spectrum Disorder

SPOTLIGHT ON AQUATICS & AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

ISSUE ON AQUATIC THERAPY & ITS EFFECT ON INDIVIDUALS ON THE SPECTRUM

Content courtesy of the Pool & Hot Tub Alliance

Spotlight on Aquatics & Women's Health

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a widely applied umbrella term that is used to describe the range of diagnoses that include Asperger’s syndrome, Autistic disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, and other developmental disorders. ASD usually manifests within the first three years of life and remains persistent throughout the patient’s lifetime. 

Children with ASD may have developmental lags in all areas of function, although most will present with difficulties in social interaction, communication, behavior regulation, and sensory processing. Symptoms such as repetitive behaviors and sensory processing dysfunction may evolve, and there may also be delays in motor skills development.

The use of aquatic therapy in the treatment of ASD is relatively new, although its use is gaining traction. Studies show that aquatic therapy can be useful when dealing with children suffering from ASD. Why? The pool offers a natural habitat that promotes many of the kinds of stimulation missing with life on land. There are also numerous cardiovascular and physiological benefits associated with physical activity, so swimming and aquatic therapy can beneficial to these children. 

Most studies show that aquatic therapy and exercise can improve symptoms of children with ASD, such as reducing stereotypical behaviors and improving motor skills and physical coordination. However, these improvements should be made within clear and defined expectations from the therapy. It also appears that socialization, attention, and behavioral regulation can benefit from time in the water.

Sometimes, it is difficult for individuals on the spectrum to adjust to working in the water. Aquatic therapists should move slowly and always affirm and empathize with the child by recognizing the fear is genuine. Some tips for working in the therapeutic pool environment include:

•  Provide intermittent joint and tactile input during activities and always prior to entering the pool 
•  Start simple by practicing entrance and exit on steps; have child skip a step, not use the handrail, reach down for items on a step, jump from 1 step to the next, etc. until child can jump from side of pool deck
•  Practice sitting on unstable surfaces in a progression from stable to unstable (aquatic mats, kickboards, sleds) 
•  Provide input to both ear canals (vertical and horizontal planes)

Therapists using the pool for aquatic sensory and motor integration should set reasonable expectations and goals for using swimming and training aquatic skills for their patient. These forms of therapy are best used when tailored to a patient’s specific needs and should be part of a multidisciplinary approach to the child’s condition. For more information on working with individuals with ASD in the water, see the research links below..

SPOTLIGHT REFERENCES:

Aquatics & Autism Spectrum Disorder

OTHER RECENT AQUATIC THERAPY STUDIES:

  1. Athletes & Non-Impaired
  2. Cardiopulmonary & Systemic
  3. Musculoskeletal
  4. Neurological & Cognitive
  5. Pediatric
  6. Pool Environment
  7. Women’s Health

 

SPOTLIGHT REFERENCES: Aquatics & Autism Spectrum Disorder

Alaniz, M. L., Rosenberg, S. S., Beard, N. R., Rosario, E. R., & Alaniz, M. L., Rosenberg, S. S., Beard, N. R., & Rosario, E. R. (2017). The Effectiveness of Aquatic Group Therapy for Improving Water Safety and Social Interactions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(12), 4006–4017. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3264-4

Aleksandrovic, M., Jorgic, B., & Block, M. (2016). The effects of aquatic activities on physical fitness and aquatic skills in children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Education and Sport, 13(3), 351–362. Retrieved from http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUPhysEdSport/article/view/1422

Altenbach-Brennan, A. (2010). Teaching Aquatic Skills To Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Thesis. Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

Asher, D., Shapiro, M., Roth, D., & Hadar-Frumer, M. (2010). Effects of hydrotherapy treatment with and without sensory adaptation on young children with developmental disabilities. Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 19(1), E25--6. 

Benedita, M., Pardo, L., & Israel, V. L. (2014). Hydrotherapy: Application of an Aquatic Functional Assessment Scale (AFAS) in Aquatic Motor Skills Learning. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(2), 42–52. 

Busst, C. (2015). Exercise as an intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Perspectives of education professionals. Birmingham City University. 

Caputo, G., Ippolito, G., Mazzotta, M., Sentenza, L., Muzio, M. R., Salzano, S., & Conson, M. (2018). Effectiveness of a Multisystem Aquatic Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(6), Epub ahead of print. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3456-y

Case-Smith, J., Weaver, L. L., & Fristad, M. a. (2014). A systematic review of sensory processing interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 19(January), 133–48. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313517762

Children, C. for E. (2010). Education and training in autism and developmental disabilities, 48(4). Retrieved from http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/ revista?codigo=15788

Clapham, E. D., Shim, M., Lamont, L. S., & Armitano, C. (2018). A Case Report Illustrating the Implementation of a Therapeutic Surfing Intervention for an Adolescent with Autism. Palaestra, 32(2). Retrieved from https://js.sagamorepub.com/palaestra/article/view/9095

Ennis, E. (2011). The effects of a physical therapy-directed aquatic program on children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Aquatic Physical Therapy (J AQUATIC PHYS THER), 19(1), 4–10.

Eversole, M., Collins, D. M., Karmarkar, A., Colton, L., Quinn, J. P., Karsbaek, R., … Hilton, C. L. (2016). Leisure Activity Enjoyment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(1), 10–20. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2529-z

Fabrizi, S. (2015). Splashing Our Way to Playfulness! An Aquatic Playgroup for Young Children With Autism, A Repeated Measures Design. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, 8(4), 292–306. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19411243.2015.1116963

Fragala-Pinkham, M. A., et al. (2011). Group swimming and aquatic exercise programme for children with autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 14(4), 230–241. http://doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2011.575438

Franzen, K., & Tryniszewski, P. (2013). Effectiveness of Aquatic Therapy for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Systematic Review of Current Literature. The Sage Colleges. Retrieved from http://library2.sage.edu/archive/thesis/PT/2013franzen_tryniszewski.PDF

Gaskell, J., Janssen, M. A., & RTC, C. (2017). Benefits of a structured swim program for children diagnosed within the autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 13(1), 9–16. Retrieved from http://www.wmpllc.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/ajrt/article/view/516

Gresswell, A., Knudsen, B. F., Maes, J., Koprowski, M., & Hadar-frumer, M. (2010). The Halliwick Concept 2010, 1–8.

Grosse, S. J. (2014). Aquatic Safety for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 8(3). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.08.03.08

Guan, J., & Li, G. (2017). Characteristics of unintentional drowning deaths in children with autism spectrum disorder. Injury Epidemiology, 4(1), 32. http://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-017-0129-4

Hastings, P. (2010). The Halliwick Concept : Developing the teaching of swimming to disabled people, (January), 1–5.

Jackson, J., Cosbey, J., & Meyer, W. (2015). Influence of Adaptive Water Sports Programs on Quality of Life Perceptions for People with Disabilities: A Feasibility Study. University of New Mexico. Retrieved from http://dspace.unm.edu/handle/1928/26753

Jull, S., & Mirenda, P. (2015). Effects of a Staff Training Program on Community Instructors’ Ability to Teach Swimming Skills to Children With Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(1), 29–40. http://doi.org/10.1177/1098300715576797

Kafkas, A. Ş. A., Gökmen, Ö., & Özen, G. (2015). Teaching of Swimming Technique to Children with Autism: A Pilot Study. Journal of Rehabilitation and Health on Disability, 1(1), 12–20. Retrieved from http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/jrhd/article/view/5000082740

Ketcheson, L., Hauck, J., Autism, D. U.-, & 2017, U. (2017). The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study. Autism, 21(4), 481–492. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1362361316650611

Klein, N., & Kemper, K. (2016). Integrative approaches to caring for children with autism. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 46(6), 195–201. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1538544215002084

Kraft, E. (2016). Exploring the Experiences of Coaching Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Canadian Aquatic Programs. University of Ottawa. Retrieved from https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/35495

Kraft, E. (2019). Examining the Perceived Impacts of Recreational Swimming Lessons for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 10(4). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.10.04.06

Kraft, E., & Leblanc, R. (2017). Instructing children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Examining swim instructors’ knowledge building experiences. Disability and Health Journal, Epub ahead of print. http://doi.org/10.1016/J.DHJO.2017.11.002

Kraft, E., Leblanc, R., & Culver, D. M. (2019). Strategies for Teaching Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Recreational Aquatics Programs. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 90(1), 24–29. http://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2018.1535338

Lambeck, J. (2015). Clinical Spotlight : A reaction to the Clinical Spotlight on Pediatric Aquatic Therapy. Newsletter of the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Pediatrics, pp. 16–20.

Lawson, L. M., Foster, L., Harrington, M. C., Oxley, C. A. (2017). Effects of a swim program for children with autism spectrum disorder on skills, interest, and participation in swimming. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 13(2), 17–27. Retrieved from http://www.wmpllc.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/ajrt/article/view/511

Lawson, L., & Little, L. (2017). Feasibility of a swimming intervention to improve sleep behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 51(2). Retrieved from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20173233767

Lee, J., & Porretta, D. L. (2013). Enhancing the Motor Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pool-based Approach. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84(1), 41–45. http://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2013.746154

Lee, S., & Hodge, S. (2017). Children with autism spectrum disorder and physical activity: A descriptive synthesis. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 8(1), 1–23. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JPESM/article-full-text/7D71ACC62461

Lisa Mische Lawson, P. C., Megan Mazurowski, O., Sarah Petersen, O., & Lawson, L. M., Mazurowski, M., & Petersen, S. (2017). Sensory processing patterns and swim skill acquisition of children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 16(2), 29–40. http://doi.org/10.5055/AJRT.2017.0131

Martin, C., & Dillenburger, K. (2019). Behavioural Water Safety and Autism: a Systematic Review of Interventions. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-019-00166-x

Menear, K., & Neumeier, W. (2015). Promoting Physical Activity for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Barriers, Benefits, and Strategies for Success. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 86(3), 43–48. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07303084.2014.998395

Mortimer, R., Privopoulos, M., multidisciplinary, S. K.-J. of, & 2014, undefined. (n.d.). The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the treatment of social and behavioral aspects of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3917923/

Mortimer, R., Privopoulos, M., & Kumar, S. (2014). The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the treatment of social and behavioral aspects of children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 7, 93–103. http://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S55345

Najafabadi, M. G., Sheikh, M., Hemayattalab, R., Amir, M., Rezaii, M., & Hafizi, S. (2018). The effect of SPARK on social and motor skills of children with autism. Pediatrics & Neonatology, Epub ahead of print. 

Noonan, M. (2006). Teaching children with autism.

Pan, C.Y. (2010). Effects of water exercise swimming program on aquatic skills and social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism : The International Journal of Research and Practice, 14(1), 9–28. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362361309339496

Oriel, K. N. K., Kanupka, J. W. J., DeLong, K. S., & Noel, K. (2014). The Impact of Aquatic Exercise on Sleep Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder A Pilot Study. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 31(4), 254–261. http://doi.org/10.1177/1088357614559212

Pan, C.Y. (2011). The efficacy of an aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills in children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 657–665. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.08.001

Pan, C.Y. C., Chu, C.H., Tsai, C.L. C., Sung, M. M.C., Less, S., Huang, W.Y. M., … Ma, W.Y. (2017). The impacts of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 21(2), 190–202. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362361316633562

Partovi, H. et al. (2018). The Effectiveness of Aquatic Exercises on the Gross Motor Skills in Autistic Children. Depiction of Health, 8(4), 241–251. Retrieved from http://www.sid.ir/FileServer/JF/10005913960406

Rogers, L., Hemmeter, M. L., & Wolery, M. (2010). Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure to Teach Foundational Swimming Skills to Children With Autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(2), 102–111. http://doi.org/10.1177/0271121410369708

Salzman. (2019). Aquatic Sensory Integration for the Pediatric Therapist Manual. Aquatic Therapy University. Oak Ridge, TN.

Salzman, A. (2014). Using the Pool for Aquatic Sensory and Motor Integration. Aquatic Therapy University. Oak Ridge, TN.

Scharoun, S. M., Wright, K. T., Robertson-Wilson, J. E., Fletcher, P. C., & Bryden, P. J. (2017). Physical Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Review. In M. Fitzgerald & J. Yip (Eds.), Physical Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Review. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/autism-paradigms-recent-research-and-clinical-applications/physical-activity-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-a-review

Section on Complementary and Integrative Medicine & Disabilities. (2012). Sensory Integration Therapies for Children With Developmental and Behavioral Disorders. Pediatrics, 129(6), 1186–1189. http://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0876

Shams-Elden, M., & Mohamed, S.-E. (2017). Effect of aquatic exercises approach (Halliwick Therapy) on motor skills for children with austism spectrum disorders. Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport, 17(2), 490–496. 

Tanner, K., Hand, B., O’Toole, G., & Lane, A. (2015). Effectiveness of interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with autism spectrum disorder: A. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(5), 12. Retrieved from http://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?articleID=2436452

Teske, A. (2018). Exploring Hydrotherapy with Autism. Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects. 692. 
Retrieved from http://ideaexchange.uakron.edu/honors_research_projects/692/

Yanardag, M., Erkan, M., & Yılmaz, İ. (2015). Teaching advance movement exploration skills in water to children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 9(1), 121–129. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750946714002578

Yanardag, M., Akmanoglu, N., & Yilmaz, I. (2013). The effectiveness of video prompting on teaching aquatic play skills for children with autism. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(1), 47–56. http://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2012.687030

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ATHLETES & NON-IMPAIRED

Ahmed, T., Ahmed, E., Ali, H., Seleem, I., Mohamed, G., Elsayed, Y., … Ahmed, A. E. (2019). Effects of Eight Weeks Aquatic-Non-aquatic Training program on Aerobic Fitness and Physical preparation in junior Basketball Player. Life Science Journal, 16(1), 111–118. http://doi.org/10.7537/marslsj160119.14

An, J., Lee, I., & Yi, Y. (2019). The Thermal Effects of Water Immersion on Health Outcomes: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1280. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071280

Oh, S. et al. (2019). A Survey on the Current Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction on Aquatic Therapy Performed by Physical Therapists. J Kor Phys Ther (Vol. 31). Retrieved from http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3664397

Type, A., & History, A. (2019). Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Exercise on the Plasma Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Life Guards : A Pilot Study. Health Education and Health Promotion, 7(2), 59–63.

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CARDIOPULMONARY & SYSTEMIC

An, J., Lee, I., & Yi, Y. (2019). The Thermal Effects of Water Immersion on Health Outcomes: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1280. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071280

Costa e Silva, G., Rodrigues da Conceição, R., Herdy, C. V., Silveira, A., & Di Masi, F. (2019). ACUTE EFFECTS OF COLD WATER IMMERSION ON CARDIOVASCULAR AND AUTONOMIC RESPONSES. Revista de Investigación En Actividades Acuáticas, 3(5), 8. http://doi.org/10.21134/riaa.v3i5.1543

Fisher, M., Miller, L., Tesfaye, J., Roemer, K., D’Acquisto, D., & D’Acquisto, L. (2019). Cardiorespiratory Responses to Shallow Water Exercise: A Sex Comparison. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(3). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.11.03.05

Gallo-Silva, B., Cerezer-Silva, V., Ferreira, D. G., Sakabe, D. I., Kel-Souza, L. D., Bertholo, V. C., … Moreno, M. A. (2019). Effects of Water-Based Aerobic Interval Training in Patients With COPD. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 39(2), 105–111. http://doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0000000000000352

Oh, S. et al. (2019). A Survey on the Current Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction on Aquatic Therapy Performed by Physical Therapists. J Kor Phys Ther (Vol. 31). Retrieved from http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3664397

Rodríguez-Blanque, R., Sanchez-Garcia, J. C., Manuel Sanchez-Lopez, A., Expósito-Ruiz, M., & Jose Aguilar-Cordero, M. (2019). Randomized Clinical Trial of an Aquatic Physical Exercise Program During Pregnancy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2019.02.003

Scott, H. (2018). A Biopsychosocial Approach to Aquatic - Based Exercise Interventions for Chronic and Disabling Conditions. Dissertation. University of the Sunshine Coast. 

Sidebottom, A. C., Vacquier, M., Simon, K., Fontaine, P., Dahlgren‐Roemmich, D., Hyer, B., … Saul, L. (2019). Who Gives Birth in the Water? A Retrospective Cohort Study of Intended versus Completed Waterbirths. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, jmwh.12961. http://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.12961

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MUSCULOSKELETAL

Ahmed, T., Ahmed, E., Ali, H., Seleem, I., Mohamed, G., Elsayed, Y., … Ahmed, A. E. (2019). Effects of Eight Weeks Aquatic-Non-aquatic Training program on Aerobic Fitness and Physical preparation in junior Basketball Player. Life Science Journal, 16(1), 111–118. http://doi.org/10.7537/marslsj160119.14

Amaro, N. M. A., Coelho, L. P. I., Gonçalves, R. R., Cruz, J. L. M., Matos, R. M. N., & Morouço, P. G. (2019). O4. Aquatic vs. Land-based fitness programs in older women conditioning. Motricidade, 15(suppl. S1), 4. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/9dd4502323d09f933e0a49e03fc67fab/1?...

An, J., Lee, I., & Yi, Y. (2019). The Thermal Effects of Water Immersion on Health Outcomes: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1280. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071280

Fisher, M., Miller, L., Tesfaye, J., Roemer, K., D’Acquisto, D., & D’Acquisto, L. (2019). Cardiorespiratory Responses to Shallow Water Exercise: A Sex Comparison. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(3). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.11.03.05

Irandoust, K., & Taheri, M. (2019). The effect of aquatic training on kinematic walking patterns of elderly women. International Archives of Health Sciences, 6(1), 1. http://doi.org/10.4103/iahs.iahs_1_19

Oh, S. et al. (2019). A Survey on the Current Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction on Aquatic Therapy Performed by Physical Therapists. J Kor Phys Ther (Vol. 31). Retrieved from http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3664397

Reichert, T., Bagatini, N. C., Simmer, N. M., Meinerz, A. P., Barroso, B. M., Prado, A. K. G., … Kruel, L. F. M. (2019). Effects of Different Models of Water-Based Resistance Training on Muscular Function of Older Women. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 90(1), 46–53. http://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1563273

Rashidlamir A., Fazolahzade-Mousavi, R., Mohammad Rahimi, G. R. (2019). Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Exercise on the Plasma Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Life Guards : A Pilot Study. Health Education and Health Promotion, 7(2), 59–63.

Scott, H. (2018). A Biopsychosocial Approach to Aquatic - Based Exercise Interventions for Chronic and Disabling Conditions. University of the Sunshine Coast.

Ubago-Guisado, E., Sánchez−Sánchez, J., Vila−Maldonado, S., Gallardo, L., Ubago-Guisado, E., Sánchez-Sánchez, J., … Gallardo, L. (2019). Effects of Zumba® and Aquagym on Bone Mass in Inactive Middle-Aged Women. Medicina, 55(1), 23. http://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55010023

Universitas Negeri Semarang. Program Studi Pendidikan Olahraga, V., Rahayu, T., & Setyawati, H. (2019). The Development of Aquatic Learning Model in Elementary School Through Traditional Game Lit-litan. Journal of Physical Education and Sports, 8(1), 33–38. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/jpes/article/view/26408

Yücesoy, H., Geçmen, İ., Adıgüzel, T., Karagülle, M., & Karagülle, M. Z. (2019). Efficacy of balneological outpatient treatment (hydrotherapy and peloidotherapy) for the management of chronic low back pain: a retrospective study. International Journal of Biometeorology, 63(3), 351–357. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-01668-9

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NEUROLOGICAL & COGNITIVE

An, J., Lee, I., & Yi, Y. (2019). The Thermal Effects of Water Immersion on Health Outcomes: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1280. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071280

Jeon, J.-Y., Chang, W.-N., & Hwang, B.-Y. (2019). Effects of Task-Oriented Training in Water on Balance and Gait in Patients with Hemiplegia. Neurotherapy, 23(1), 15–23. http://doi.org/10.17817/2019.01.29.111351

Martin, C., & Dillenburger, K. (2019). Behavioural Water Safety and Autism: a Systematic Review of Interventions. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-019-00166-x

Neudecker, C., Mewes, N., Reimers, A. K., & Woll, A. (2019). Exercise Interventions in Children and Adolescents With ADHD: A Systematic Review. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(4), 307–324. http://doi.org/10.1177/1087054715584053

Oh, S. et al. (2019). A Survey on the Current Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction on Aquatic Therapy Performed by Physical Therapists. J Kor Phys Ther (Vol. 31). Retrieved from http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3664397

Scott, H. (2018). A Biopsychosocial Approach to Aquatic - Based Exercise Interventions for Chronic and Disabling Conditions. University of the Sunshine Coast.

Universitas Negeri Semarang. Program Studi Pendidikan Olahraga, V., Rahayu, T., & Setyawati, H. (2019). The Development of Aquatic Learning Model in Elementary School Through Traditional Game Lit-litan. Journal of Physical Education and Sports, 8(1), 33–38. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/jpes/article/view/26408 

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PEDIATRIC

Ahmed, T., Ahmed, E., Ali, H., Seleem, I., Mohamed, G., Elsayed, Y., … Ahmed, A. E. (2019). Effects of Eight Weeks Aquatic-Non-aquatic Training program on Aerobic Fitness and Physical preparation in junior Basketball Player. Life Science Journal, 16(1), 111–118. http://doi.org/10.7537/marslsj160119.14

An, J., Lee, I., & Yi, Y. (2019). The Thermal Effects of Water Immersion on Health Outcomes: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1280. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071280

Martin, C., & Dillenburger, K. (2019). Behavioural Water Safety and Autism: a Systematic Review of Interventions. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-019-00166-x

Martins, B., Amiens, A., Adamo, C., Ascoet, M., & Barbot, F. (2019). ATP: Aqua Therapy for Patients, a New Approach for Water Rehabilitation Follow-up with Connected Devices Linked with a Serious Game. In Medication Reconciliation at Discharge: Impact on Patient’s Care (CONCIVILLE) (pp. 627–634). http://doi.org/10.5220/0007697306270634

Neudecker, C., Mewes, N., Reimers, A. K., & Woll, A. (2019). Exercise Interventions in Children and Adolescents With ADHD: A Systematic Review. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(4), 307–324. http://doi.org/10.1177/1087054715584053

Oh, S. et al. (2019). A Survey on the Current Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction on Aquatic Therapy Performed by Physical Therapists. J Kor Phys Ther (Vol. 31). 대한물리치료학회. Retrieved from http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3664397

Scott, H. (2018). A Biopsychosocial Approach to Aquatic - Based Exercise Interventions for Chronic and Disabling Conditions. University of the Sunshine Coast. 

Universitas Negeri Semarang. Program Studi Pendidikan Olahraga, V., Rahayu, T., & Setyawati, H. (2019). The Development of Aquatic Learning Model in Elementary School Through Traditional Game Lit-litan. Journal of Physical Education and Sports, 8(1), 33–38. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/jpes/article/view/26408

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POOL ENVIRONMENT

An, J., Lee, I., & Yi, Y. (2019). The Thermal Effects of Water Immersion on Health Outcomes: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1280. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071280

Nitter, T. B., & Svendsen, K. v H. (2019). Determinants of Exposure and Variability of Trihalomethanes in the Air of Three Indoor Swimming Pools. Annals of Work Exposures and Health. http://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz024

Oh, S. et al. (2019). A Survey on the Current Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction on Aquatic Therapy Performed by Physical Therapists. J Kor Phys Ther (Vol. 31). Retrieved from http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3664397

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WOMEN'S HEALTH

Amaro, N. M. A., Coelho, L. P. I., Gonçalves, R. R., Cruz, J. L. M., Matos, R. M. N., & Morouço, P. G. (2019). O4. Aquatic vs. Land-based fitness programs in older women conditioning. Motricidade, 15(suppl. S1), 4. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/9dd4502323d09f933e0a49e03fc67fab/1?...

An, J., Lee, I., & Yi, Y. (2019). The Thermal Effects of Water Immersion on Health Outcomes: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1280. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071280

Irandoust, K., & Taheri, M. (2019). The effect of aquatic training on kinematic walking patterns of elderly women. International Archives of Health Sciences, 6(1), 1. http://doi.org/10.4103/iahs.iahs_1_19

Oh, S. et al. (2019). A Survey on the Current Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction on Aquatic Therapy Performed by Physical Therapists. J Kor Phys Ther (Vol. 31). Retrieved from http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3664397

Reichert, T., Bagatini, N. C., Simmer, N. M., Meinerz, A. P., Barroso, B. M., Prado, A. K. G., … Kruel, L. F. M. (2019). Effects of Different Models of Water-Based Resistance Training on Muscular Function of Older Women. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 90(1), 46–53. http://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1563273

Rodríguez-Blanque, R., Sanchez-Garcia, J. C., Manuel Sanchez-Lopez, A., Expósito-Ruiz, M., & Jose Aguilar-Cordero, M. (2019). Randomized Clinical Trial of an Aquatic Physical Exercise Program During Pregnancy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing. http://doi.org/10.1016/J.JOGN.2019.02.003

Sidebottom, A. C., Vacquier, M., Simon, K., Fontaine, P., Dahlgren‐Roemmich, D., Hyer, B., … Saul, L. (2019). Who Gives Birth in the Water? A Retrospective Cohort Study of Intended versus Completed Waterbirths. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, jmwh.12961. http://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.12961

Ubago-Guisado, E., Sánchez−Sánchez, J., Vila−Maldonado, S., Gallardo, L., Ubago-Guisado, E., Sánchez-Sánchez, J., … Gallardo, L. (2019). Effects of Zumba® and Aquagym on Bone Mass in Inactive Middle-Aged Women. Medicina, 55(1), 23. http://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55010023

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