Aquatic Health Benefits Bulletin

NSPF provides a monthly Aquatic Health Benefits Bulletin (AHBB), each focusing on a different topic area: athletes and non-impaired, cardiopulmonary & systemic, neurological & cognitive musculoskeletal, pediatric, and women's health. The monthly posts include 300-500 vignettes written in laymen's terms and the corresponding scientific references. The bibliography is organized by a certain topic area with links to publications that are available online. The AHBB is a great resource for the pool and spa industry influencers who want to help build demand for pools, spas, and aquatic facilities by promoting the benefits of water immersion and activity. It is also a perfect way for aquatic leaders to help promote healthier living and reduce drownings.

 

September 2018: Aquatics & Cerebral Palsy

SPOTLIGHT ON AQUATICS & CEREBRAL PALSY

THE POOL IS CUSTOM-MADE FOR TREATING CONGENITAL CONDITIONS

Content courtesy of the National Swimming Pool Foundation

RECENT PUBLICATIONS WHICH SHOW HOW WATER WORKS FOR CEREBRAL PALSY

There are certain congenital disorders which – though they do not worsen – can potentially create new problems each and every day. Cerebral palsy is such a disorder. As children with CP mature, they gain functional skills and explore new abilities, just like their typically-developing peers. But as their bodies grow, their weight increases and there comes a time when this increased weight can create a new difficulty with operating under gravity’s sway. This is one of the reasons why the pool can become such a blessing. In water, gravity continues to operate exactly as it does on land. However, gravity is offset by another force of nature, buoyancy.

As Archimedes discovered (some say while in his bathtub!), buoyancy operates as a kind of anti-gravity, lifting-up while gravity pulls down. When patients with CP enter the pool, in some ways they are reclaiming a body which they once knew, a lighter body, a more mobile, more free body. The pool provides the remedy to gravity required for patients to stretch, weight-bear and move with more freedom. It also provides a safe place for patients to expand their existing limits and try new things without fear of the consequences. 

RECENT ANNOTATED REFERENCES

Adar, S., Dündar, Ü., Demirdal, Ü. S., Ulaşlı, A. M., Toktaş, H., & Solak, Ö. (2017). The effect of aquatic exercise on spasticity, quality of life, and motor function in cerebral palsy. Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63(3), 239–248. http://doi.org/10.5606/tftrd.2017.280

Altenbach-Brennan, A. (2010). Teaching Aquatic Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Southern Illinois University Carbondale. https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/gs_rp/7/

Appel, J. (2016). Commentary on “Benefits and Enjoyment of a Swimming Intervention for Youth With Cerebral Palsy: An RCT Study”. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 28(2), 170. http://doi.org/10.1097/PEP.0000000000000253

Badawy, W. W. M., Ibrahem, M. M. B., Ph, D., Ibrahem, M. M. B., & Ph, D. (2016). Comparing the Effects of Aquatic and Land-Based Exercises on Balance and Walking in Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy Children. Medical Journal of Cairo, 84(1), 1–8. Retrieved from http://medicaljournalofcairouniversity.net/home2/images/pdf/2016/march/5...

Ballaz, L., Plamondon, S., & Lemay, M. (2011). Group aquatic training improves gait efficiency in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation, 33(17–18), 1616–1624. http://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2010.541544

Barassi G, Bellomo RG, Ancona E, Trivisano L, & Saggini R. (2017). The role of water environment rehabilitation in patients with neurological and cognitive disabilites. Biophilia, (1). Retrieved from https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ibra/2017/1/2017_28/_pdf

Barassi, G., Bellomo, R. G., Porreca, A., Giannuzzo, G., Irace, G., Trivisano, L., & Saggini, R. (2018). Rehabilitation of Neuromotor Disabilities in Aquatic Microgravity Environment (pp. 1–13). Springer, New York, NY. http://doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_164

Barmatz, C., Lazitz-Dor, A., Casher, H., Mekadesh, K., Morag, I., Bar-Yosef, O., & Friedman, H. (2014). Influence of Infant Aquatics on the neural development of premature infants. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 53, S13. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-014-0252-4

Benedita, M., Pardo, L., & Israel, V. L. (2014). Hydrotherapy: Application of an Aquatic Functional Assessment Scale (AFAS ) in Aquatic Motor Skills Learning. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(2), 42–52. Retrieved from http://www.aijcrnet.com/journals/Vol_4_No_2_February_2014/7.pdf

Bosko, V. (2017). An influence of initial swimming training technology on technical preparedness indicators of children with consequences of cerebral palsy. Slobazans’kij Naukovo-Sportivnij Visnik, 5(61), 24–27. http://journals.uran.ua/sport_herald/article/viewFile/116217/pdf_207

Byoungook, K., & Hyojeong, L. (2015). Effects of Aquatic Rehabilitation Program on Gross Motor Function and Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine, 3(3), 35–42. http://doi.org/10.15268/ksim.2015.3.3.035

Case-Smith, J., Weaver, L. L., & Fristad, M. a. (2014). A systematic review of sensory processing interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 19(January), 133–48. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313517762

ChiaLing Chen. (2015). Effects of Pediatric Aquatic Therapy in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01049581

Children, C. (2011). Best Evidence Statement (BESt): Aquatic physical therapy combined with land-based physical therapy to improve functional independence. Early Education, 9(January), 1–6. http://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20620.

Conatser, P., James, E., Karabulut, U., Conatser, P. ;, & James, E. ; (2018). Adapted Aquatics for Children with Severe Motor Impairments. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 10(3), 5. http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.10.03.05

Connor, J. O. (2012). Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy, (May). California State University, Northridge. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.838.2126&rep=re...

Declerck, M., Feys, H., & Daly, D. (2013). Benefits of Swimming for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilor Study. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 7(2), 57–69. Retrieved from https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001577-201628020-00005

Declerck, M., Verheul, M., Daly, D., Sanders, R., & Declerck, M., Verheul, M., Daly, D., & Sanders, R. (2016). Benefits and Enjoyment of a Swimming Intervention for Youth With Cerebral Palsy: An RCT Study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 28(2), 162–169. http://doi.org/10.1097/PEP.0000000000000235

Declerck, M. (2014). Swimming and the physical, social and emotional well-being of youth with cerebral palsy. Edinburgh. Retrieved from http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/9459

Dimitrijevic, L., Bjelakovic, B., Lazovic, M., Stankovic, I., Colovic, H., Kocic, M., & Zlatanovic, D. (2012). Aquatic exercise in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy. Srpski Arhiv Za Celokupno Lekarstvo, 140(11–12), 746–750. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273671734_Aquatic_Exercise_in_t...

Dimitrijević, L., Aleksandrović, M., Madić, D., Okičić, T., Radovanović, D., & Daly, D. (2012). The Effect of Aquatic Intervention on the Gross Motor Function and Aquatic Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Journal of Human Kinetics, 32(May), 167–174. http://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0033-5

Dubois, M. (2011). Aquatic Therapy for Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Occupational Therapists’ Perspectives. University of Puget Sound. Retrieved from https://soundideas.pugetsound.edu/ms_occ_therapy/22/.

Dysterheft, J., Chaparro, G., Rice, L., et al. (2018) Investigating the Outcomes and Perceptions of an Inclusive Aquatic Exercise Class for University Students with Physical Disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability. 31(1), 41-56. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1182344

Education, P., Naučni, O., Bojan Jorgić, R., Dimitrijević, L., Aleksandrović, M., Okičić, T., … Radovanović, D. (2012). The Swimming Program Effects on the Gross Motor Function, Mental Adjustment to the Aquatic Environment, and Swimming Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study. Clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 11(1), 51–66. http://doi.org/10.5937/specedreh1201051J

Emmi-Sofia Kangas. (2016). The use of performance enhancing swimwear during aqua therapy for cerebral palsy - a case study. Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulu, Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. http://www.theseus.fi/handle/10024/117449

Fragala-Pinkham, M. A., Dumas, H. M., Barlow, C. A., & Pasternak, A. (2009). An Aquatic Physical Therapy Program at a Pediatric Rehabilitation Hospital: A Case Series. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21(1), 68–78. http://doi.org/10.1097/PEP.0b013e318196eb37

Fragala-Pinkham, M. A., Smith, H. J., Lombard, K. A., Barlow, C., O’Neil, M. E., & O’Neil, M. E. (2014). Aquatic aerobic exercise for children with cerebral palsy: a pilot intervention study. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 30(2), 69–78. http://doi.org/10.3109/09593985.2013.825825

Franzen, K., & Tryniszewski, P. (2013). Effectiveness of Aquatic Therapy for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Systematic Review of Current Literature. The Sage Colleges. Retrieved from http://library2.sage.edu/archive/thesis/PT/2013franzen_tryniszewski.PDF

Gaab, E., & Steinhorn, D. (2014). Families’ Views of Pediatric Palliative Aquatics: A Qualitative Study. Pain Management Nursing. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1524904214001593

Gabriel, E. (2010). Land and Aquatic Based Physical Therapy Interventions to Improve Mobility and Independence on a Pediatric Patient After a Near-Drowning: a Case Report. Sage Graduate School. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2aca/5fecda2132a9d6d508c8272235bb84e1ad...

Getz, M., Hutzler, Y., Vermeer, A., Yarom, Y., & Unnithan, V. (2012). The Effect of Aquatic and Land-Based Training on the Metabolic Cost of Walking and Motor Performance in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study. ISRN Rehabilitation, 2012, 1–8. article. http://doi.org/10.5402/2012/657979

Gorter, J. W., & Currie, S. J. (2011). Aquatic Exercise Programs for Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go? International Journal of Pediatrics, 2011(2), 1–7. http://doi.org/10.1155/2011/712165

Grosse, S. J. (2009). Aquatics for Individuals With Disabilities: Research Implications. International Journal of Aquatic Research & Education, 3(4), 356–367. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.go...

Güeita-Rodríguez, J., García-Muro, F., Rodríguez-Fernández, Á. L., Lambeck, J., Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C., & Palacios-Ceña, D. (2017). What areas of functioning are influenced by aquatic physiotherapy? Experiences of parents of children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Neurorehabilitation,21(8), http://doi.org/10.1080/17518423.2017.1368728

Guille, S. (2016). Aquatic Physiotherapy in the Inpatient Setting. Aquatic Physical Therapy Group. Cambridge. http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Hernandez, A. A. (2016). The Benefits of Aquatic Therapy on Individuals with Cerebral Palsy. University Presentation Showcase Event. Eastern Kentucky University. Retrieved from http://encompass.eku.edu/swps/2016/undergraduate/54/

Hill, M., McAuliffe, K., Watkins, P., Wheeler, A., Raynes, E., M., H., … Raynes, E. (2015). The Underwater Treadmill as a Physical Therapy Intervention for Children with Cerebral Palsy. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal (FASEB), 29(1), 983.10. http://doi.org/10.1096/fj.1530-6860

Jackson, J., Cosbey, J., & Meyer, W. (2015). Influence of Adaptive Water Sports Programs on Quality of Life Perceptions for People with Disabilities: A Feasibility Study. University of New Mexico. Retrieved from http://dspace.unm.edu/handle/1928/26753

Jorgic, B. (2014). The Effects of a Program of Swimming and Aquatic Exercise on Flexibility in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Facta Universitatis. Physical Education and Sports. Retrieved from http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUPhysEdSport/article/view/289

Jorgić, B., Dimitrijević, L., Lambeck, J., Aleksandrović, M., Okičić, T., & Madić, D. (2012). Effects of aquatic programs in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: Systematic review. Sport Science, 5(2), 49–56. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279195894_Effects_of_aquatic_pr...

Ka, B., Declerck, M., Daly, D. J., Karklina, B., Declerck, M., Daly, D. J., … Daly, D. J. (2013). Quantification of Aquatic Interventions in Children With Disabilities: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Aquatic Research & Education, 7(4), 344–379. Retrieved from http://www.humankinetics.com/acucustom/sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/0...

Khalaji, M., Kalantari, M., Shafiee, Z., & Hosseini, M. A. (2017). The Effect of Hydrotherapy on Health of Cerebral Palsy Patients: An Integrative Review. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 15(152), 173–180. http://doi.org/10.18869/nrip.irj.15.2.173

Labianca, L., Calderaro, C., Rota, P., Vulpiani, M. C., Turturro, F., Montanaro, A., … Ferretti, A. (2013). Evaluation by gross motor function measure of a pilot aquatic exercise program for children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 14(1), S84–S85. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270882401_Evaluation_by_Gross_M...

Lai, C. J., Liu, W. Y., Yang, T. F., Chen, C. L., Wu, C. Y., & Chan, R. C. (2015). Pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function and enjoyment in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy of various motor severities. Journal of Child Neurology. http://doi.org/10.1177/0883073814535491

Lai, C. et al. (2015). Pediatric Aquatic Therapy on Motor Function and Enjoyment in Children Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy of Various Motor Severities. Journal of Child Neurology, 30(2), 200–8. http://doi.org/10.1177/0883073814535491

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Maniu, D. A., Maniu, E. A., & Benga, I. (2013). Effects of an aquatic therapy program on vital capacity, quality of life and physical activity index in children with cerebral palsy. Human & Veterinary Medicine, 5(3), 117–124. Retrieved from http://www.hvm.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2013.117-124.pdf

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Not, I., Publica, C., Reuni, E. S., Cursos, E. S., Links, E., & Contato, G. (n.d.). Effects of an aquatic therapy approach (Halliwick-Therapy) on functional mobility in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 28(5), 45–47. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24177711

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Quick, E. (2015). Aquatic Therapy Strength Training Benefits for the Leg Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy. Retrieved from http://gru.openrepository.com/gru/handle/10675.2/579478

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