June 2017: Bariatric Disorders

SPOTLIGHT ON AQUATICS & BARIATRIC DISORDERS

The pool is custom-made for treating obesity & excessive weight

Recent publications which show how water works for obesity

Exercise, calorie restriction and immersion have been part of the recommendation for weight loss since the time of the Ancient Romans and Greeks, but it has only been recently that science has caught up. Calorie restriction has always been the gold standard for weight loss, but recent studies give support to the idea that aquatic exercise – even in the absence of a diet – can combat excess adipose, especially abdominal fat. Bariatric centers have started to affiliate with therapeutic pools in order to help guide potential gastric surgery candidates through initial weight loss prior to being accepted as surgical candidates. But, even in the absence of weight loss, there is a case to be made for exercise for this population for the health benefits alone.
It is already widely accepted that one of the most effective treatments for long-term management of the symptoms of physical disorders is physical exercise. However, it has been suggested that weight-bearing exercise — even exercise considered "normal" — can aggravate pain and further promote degeneration in patients with abnormal joints due to obesity. This is particularly true if the joints have incongruous articular surfaces, poor alignment, ligamentous instability, or altered muscle or joint innervation, as is often the case in patients with arthritis. 
Unfortunately, this diminishes exercise options for the patient with joint degeneration, which often results in a discontinuation of exercise altogether. Ironically, the ensuing immobility and lack of dynamic joint loading further damage joint surfaces leading to a downward spiral of immobility and degeneration. Exercising in the pool will reduce the amount of joint compression and weight-bearing performed during a given task and make it possible to do things that are too cumbersome on land. In other words, the pool offers the blissful combination of work and ease.

RECENT ANNOTATED REFERENCES

Aquabike / Waterbike / Spabike / Cryotherapy Chambe / Weight Loss Machines. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2017, from https://vacuactivus.com/aquabike-waterbike-spabike-info

Bacchi, M., Mottola, M. F., Perales, M., Refoyo, I., & Barakat, R. (2017). Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight. American Journal of Health Promotion, Epub ahead of print. http://doi.org/10.1177/0890117117697520

Fenzl, M., Schnizer, W., Aebli, N., Schlegel, C., Villiger, B., Disch, A., … Krebs, J. (2013). Release of ANP and fat oxidation in overweight persons during aerobic exercise in water. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(9), 795–799. http://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1333696

Halvorson, R. (2017). Water-Based Weight Loss Programs: Help Older Women Manage Knee Problems. IDEA Fitness Journal, 14(6), 12. Retrieved from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/water-based-weight-loss-programs-...

Hannani, M., Ali Gaeini, A., Shabani, R., & Hemmatinafar, M. (2016). Serum concentration of myostatin, insulin and glucose response to continuous and discontinuous exercises in overweight menopausal and menstrual women. Hormozgan Medical Journal, 20(2), 99–107. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/471a/3ef35a7bdd80de7c178cd3e095af2957b7...

Higgins, J., & Higgins, C. (2016). Prescribing exercise to help your patients lose weight. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 83(2), 141–150. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871390

Kantyka, J., Herman, D., Roczniok, R., & Kuba, L. (2015). Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women. Human Movement, 16(1), 9–14. Retrieved from http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/humo.2015.16.issue-1/humo-2015-0020/humo...

Katsura, Y., Yoshikawa, T., Ueda, S., Usui, T., Sotobayashi, D., Sakamoto, H., … Fujimoto, S. (2010). The Effects of Aquatic Exercise Training on Trunk Muscles Function and Activities of Daily Living in Obese Women. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 59(5), 505–512. Retrieved from https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jspfsm/59/5/59_5_505/_article

Kostrzewa-Nowak, D., & Nowak, R. (2015). Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women. Biochemia …, 25(1), 103–113. Retrieved from http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=205343

Lee, B. B.-A., & Oh, D.-J. D. (2014). The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary students. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 10(3), 184–190. http://doi.org/10.12965/jer.140115

Lim, J., Tchai, E., Jang, S. (2010). Effectiveness of aquatic exercise for obese patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. PM & R : The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 2(8), 723–731. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.04.004

Lopes, M. de F. A., Bento, P. C. B., Lazzaroto, L., Rodacki, A. F., & Leite, N. (2015). Effects of water walking on the anthropometric and metabolic aspects in young obese individuals. Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry and Human Performance, 17(2), 146–155. http://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p145

Medeiros, N. da S., & Colato, A. (2016). Influence of different frequencies of deep water running on oxidative profile and insulin resistance in obese women. Obesity Medicine, 2, 37–40. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451847616300100

Penaforte, F. R. O., Calhau, R., Mota, G. R., & Chiarello, P. G. (2016, September 1). Impact of short-term water exercise programs on weight, body composition, metabolic profile and quality of life of obese women. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. http://www.redalyc.org/html/3010/301047715007/ 

Pouwels, S., Wit, M., Teijink, J., & Nienhuijs, S. (2015). Aspects of Exercise before or after Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review. Obesity Facts, 8(2), 132–146. Retrieved from http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/381201

Yázigi, F., Espanha, M., Vieira, F., Messier, S. P., Monteiro, C., & Veloso, A. P. (2013). The PICO project: aquatic exercise for knee osteoarthritis in overweight and obese individuals. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14, 320. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-14-320 

Zdziarski, L., Wasser, J., & Vincent, H. (2015). Chronic pain management in the obese patient: a focused review of key challenges and potential exercise solutions. Journal of Pain Research, 8, 63–77. http://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S55360

Λαμπαδάρη, Β., & Χαιροπούλου, Χ. (2016). Swimming and Water-Based Exercise for Adults: Effect on Body Weight, Body Fat and Lean Body Mass. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 13(3), 50–62. Retrieved from http://research.pe.uth.gr/emag/index.php/inquiries/article/view/198